The focus of Brecht's reading is that he views art, or at least the modern opera as a process of innovation. Innovations are made to a given artistic medium over time and help the medium stay fresh and modern for the given audience. Brecht uses a street model to demonstrate the way a modern epic theater operates. He explains how the actor must not try to present an illusionary gateway into an alternate reality, but instead must simply say their lines and imitate their character. This can be done with attitude and opinion however. In Rob Marshall's 2002 film Chicago the story is presented in a meta-theater format in that a oerformance is being presented inside a performance to tell the story. Songs are used to highlight key narrative ideas and one of the ideas is that of presenting information to spectators. This is done with the model of the epic theater in mind.