1. Pertaining to the setting forth or laying down of opinion; didactic. rare.
3. Proceeding upon a priori principles accepted as true, instead of being founded upon experience or induction, as dogmatic philosophy, medicine.
4b. Of assured opinion, convinced. Obs. rare. (OED).

In Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, the word dogmatic appears a couple of times in response to the problem of metaphysics, a science which can not be derived from empirical observation, or a posterioiri. I always related the term to Catholicism and it was interesting to see it used in a way to describe a science. However the term here makes perfect sense; this article discusses Kant's investigation in trying to discover if metaphysics can be empirical when its subject matter is mostly "God, freedom and immortality" (139). The field of Metaphysics is founded dogmatically, by believing in opinions rather than experience, and Kant wants to know if it can also be studied by the expansion of a priori.

Kant, Immanuel. “Introduction (Books I-VI).” The Critique of Pure Reason. Tr. & Ed Paul Guyer, Allen W. Wood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge IP, 1998.

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