Chaos is used in Ovid's Book I (pg. 15) to describe what the universe entailed before Creation. The OED defines chaos as (1) "a gaping void, yawning gulf, chasm, or abyss" out of which the universe was evolved (2), but the definition that comes to mind first nowadays is the OED's third definition, "a state resembling that of primitive chaos; utter confusion and disorder." Not only is this matter the "single aspect" that existed at the time, but it is personified with the name Chaos. This thing, Ovid suggests, was bumbling around with a complete lack of direction and very dangerous ingredients. Although the world--including humans--- had not yet been created, Chaos suggests that humans would sin (and therefore sin is inherent). Like the previous Creation stories, humans were set up to sin, even if there is no one direct punishment. Ovid writes that the "mass" of Chaos had "discordant seeds" and "disconnected elements" in "anarchic disarray." The mention of discordance and anarchy correlates directly to disobedience, so the elements that humans were created from (the dust and dirt that the Creation stories make us a part of) intrinsically persuade humans to later sin in the Four Ages. One would like to think that humans do have these elements, but choose to ignore them as much as possible.

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